Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) are affordable photodetectors, capable to collect extremely fast low-energy events, due to their single-photon sensibility. This makes them very suitable for time-of-flight-based range imaging systems, allowing to reduce costs and power requirements, without sacrifizing much temporal resolution. In this work we describe a computational model to simulate the behaviour of SPAD sensors, aiming to provide a realistic camera model for time-resolved light transport simulation, with applications on prototyping new reconstructions techniques based on SPAD time-of-flight data. Our model accounts for the major effects of the sensor on the incoming signal. We compare our model against real-world measurements, and apply it to a variety of scenarios, including complex multiply-scattered light transport.
- Paper [PDF, 610 kB]
- Code [ZIP, 86.6 MB] - Code is property of Universidad de Zaragoza, and available for non-commercial use.
We want to thank Alberto Tosi and his team at Politecnico di Milano for providing references on SPADs theory and characterization, as well as measured data from real-world SPADs. This research has been funded by DARPA (project REVEAL), and the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (projects TIN2016-78753-P and TIN2014-61696-EXP).